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La clase media de la libertad

Eugenio Nasarre | 123 comentarios valoración: 3  261 votos
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En su deliciosa Autobiografía Chesterton escribió que su madre se sentía orgullosa de pertenecer a la clase media y que creía que era lo mejor que le podía pasar a cualquiera: no cabía en ella la menor tentación de “ascender de clase”.

El término “clase media” empieza a utilizarse en la Inglaterra de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII para identificar a un entonces incipiente grupo social, que se irá progresivamente consolidando y ampliando, intermedio entre la nobleza y el proletariado rural o urbano. No debemos mitificar, desde luego, a las clases medias. Pero, cuando Chesterton pone a su madre como prototipo de ellas, no lo hace de manera inocente. Lo hace sutilmente para poner de relieve las virtudes que fueron caracterizando a este estrato social.

Las clases medias no eran grandes propietarias ni aspiraban a serlo. Pero apreciaban la posesión de unos bienes suficientes que les diera seguridad e independencia y que pudieran transmitir a sus hijos. Esa seguridad e independencia estaba asociada a la libertad. Las clases medias sólo podían desenvolverse allí donde hubiera ámbitos de libertad y sólo reclamaban de la ley que los protegiera. Los valores que cultivaron eran el trabajo, el ahorro, una cierta austeridad, un sentido familiar de la vida, más igualitario que el practicado por la nobleza, y un aprecio por la educación como el legado más importante que podían dar a sus hijos. El concepto de “buen padre de familia”, que consagra nuestro Código Civil como modelo de comportamiento, es el compendio de las virtudes con los que se identificará el “tipo ideal” de este sector de la sociedad.

La historia del siglo XX, sobre todo a partir de su segunda mitad, es la de una progresiva extensión de las clases medias a medida que crecía la prosperidad económica. En España esa ampliación alcanza velocidad de crucero desde la década de los sesenta y en el último período de intenso crecimiento económico (1995-2007) recibe un nuevo impulso. “Viejas” y “nuevas” clases medias van conformando así la mayoría de nuestra sociedad. Muchos de los logros de nuestro período democrático están asociados al auge de las clases medias.

¿En qué medida la crisis, por su intensidad y por su duración, les está afectando? Creo que no es ésta una pregunta impertinente y pienso que debería ser objeto central de nuestra reflexión y preocupación. La cuestión ha entrado en el debate público a propósito de los impuestos, que están golpeando con especial dureza a las familias de las clases medias. Pero éste es sólo un aspecto del problema. La precariedad del empleo, sobre todo en las generaciones más jóvenes, está modificando el modo de vida, las relaciones profesionales, la capacidad de ahorro y las expectativas vitales. ¿Están en riesgo las virtudes que han caracterizado el “modelo ideal” de este sector social? ¿La precariedad y la incertidumbre favorecen los compromisos personales de larga duración?

Efectivamente aparecen en el horizonte muchos riesgos sobre los que resulta imprescindible un serio debate, porque la orientación de nuestra sociedad está en juego. Sólo puedo ahora apuntar uno de ellos: el valor de la libertad. El empobrecimiento prolongado de las clases medias puede impulsar el camino de su mayor dependencia del Estado, restringiendo así los espacios de libertad. La educación es un ámbito que debemos observar con especial preocupación. Por primera vez en nuestra democracia hay síntomas de que la libertad de elección de las familias está presentando dificultades de nuevo cuño. La crisis nos obliga a replantear nuestro modelo de Estado y nuestras políticas públicas precisamente en defensa de unas libertades que tienen que llegar a la vida real de las personas, a las decisiones que verdaderamente importan. Las amplias clases medias necesitan para fortalecerse el humus de la libertad.

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