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Doctrina Parot y seguridad jurídica

Alicia Pérez Yagüe, jurista penitenciaria | 81 comentarios valoración: 3  204 votos
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Voy a exponer un supuesto práctico para que pueda entenderse en qué consiste la “doctrina Parot”. Pongamos que el etarra “X” cometió varios delitos de terrorismo antes del año 1996, habiendo resultado fallecidas 7 personas:

En este caso, se le aplicarían la suma de todos los asesinatos, daños, lesiones, etc., que pudiera haber provocado sus acciones terroristas, que podría dar lugar a, por ejemplo, 700 años.

Aún habiendo sido condenado a una pena de 700 años de prisión, el Código Penal de 1973 (vigente en el momento de la comisión de los hechos delictivos), establecía en su artículo 70 que el máximo de cumplimiento efectivo de condena sería de de 30 años de prisión. Asimismo, y por otro lado, el artículo 100 del Código Penal de 1973 permitía la llamada “redención de penas por el trabajo” (un día de redención por cada dos de trabajo). En suma, a un límite máximo de 30 años de estancia efectiva en prisión, se le podrían restar hasta 15 años de condena (el máximo redimible), por lo que de los 700 años iniciales nos quedaríamos en solamente 15 de cumplimiento efectivo de condena.

Pero en el año 2006 el Tribunal Supremo, al resolver un recurso interpuesto por el etarra Henri Parot (de ahí el nombre de la citada doctrina) hizo una nueva interpretación de la aplicación de los beneficios penitenciarios –y en concreto, de la “redención de penas por el trabajo”-, que fue avalada posteriormente por el Tribunal Constitucional.

La “doctrina Parot” consiste, en esencia, que los beneficios penitenciarios (entre los que se encuentra la “redención de penas por el trabajo”) se apliquen sobre la totalidad de la condena (en nuestro ejemplo, los 700 años) y no los 30 años de cumplimiento máximo efectivo, con lo que se evitaba de este modo excarcelaciones masivas de etarras y otros autores de delitos que provocaron gran alarma social. Esta nueva interpretación se comenzó a aplicar no sólo a los internos pertenecientes a la banda terrorista ETA, sino también a delincuentes comunes, protagonistas de los delitos más cruentos.

Aunque se trata de una doctrina defendible jurídicamente, ya esta nueva interpretación se estaría realizando en la fase de ejecución de la pena y no en la fase de su imposición, en opinión de muchos juristas vulneraría principios generales del ordenamiento jurídico-penal, como el de irretroactividad de las disposiciones sancionadoras no favorables y de legalidad (ya que se estaría aplicando a los condenados una norma de creación jurisprudencial no vigente en el momento de comisión de los hechos), y el de seguridad jurídica (ya que su aplicación no se hace de forma generalizada, sino caso a caso, de forma discrecional).

Tal vez por ello, en vez de poner el grito en el cielo porque la Gran Sala del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos humanos haya tumbado la “doctrina Parot”, quizás deberíamos preguntarnos por qué una institución tan obsoleta como la de “redención de penas por el trabajo”, pensada por el régimen de Franco para aplicarse en una situación de post-guerra, ha seguido vigente tantos años después, concretamente hasta el 23 de mayo de 1996, curiosamente durante la época más sangrienta de la banda terrorista ETA. Fue la falta de consenso político, o la mera dejadez, como lo queramos llamar, lo que ha provocado la situación actual. De aquellos barros, estos lodos.

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