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Un año sin Chávez, un año de carestía y represión

Victoria Pacheco, Caracas | 90 comentarios valoración: 3  167 votos
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Venezuela cumple un año sin Hugo Chávez, pero su figura omnipresente no conjura la crisis económica y una violencia criminal que desató una ola de manifestaciones opositoras en el último mes, con un saldo de 18 muertos.

Con un desfile cívico-militar, el gobierno de Nicolás Maduro ha conmemorado este miércoles el primer aniversario de la muerte del líder de la “revolución socialista del siglo XXI” en Venezuela, en momentos en que también se cumple un mes de protestas callejeras contra su heredero político, para quien sus simpatizantes piden “tiempo” porque está “aprendiendo a gobernar”.

A un año de la muerte del ‘Comandante Supremo', víctima de un cáncer que combatió por casi dos años, los venezolanos todavía ven su figura, rostro u ojos pintados en las calles de Caracas y edificios oficiales, que recuerdan al carismático líder que gobernó por 14 años (1999-2013).

El gobierno “ha hecho grandes esfuerzos para que la figura de Chávez siga presente”, mientras su voz cantando el himno nacional abre casi todos los actos oficiales, dijo la socióloga Maryclen Stelling.

Pero esas mismas calles en el último mes han sido escenario de protestas estudiantiles, de la clase media y dirigentes opositores en rechazo a la inseguridad, la escasez de productos básicos (uno de cada cuatro), la inflación (56%) y la detención y represión de manifestantes.

Aunque el descontento de la clase media es evidente, Stelling descarta “una desestabilización del gobierno” porque los pobres, quienes son el grueso de la base electoral chavista, “así estén aquejados por la crisis económica y la inseguridad, están conectados políticamente, místicamente, religiosamente, con Chávez, su legado y el socialismo bolivariano del siglo XXI”.

Una situación que vuelve a reflejar la polarización en dos mitades de la sociedad venezolana, que marcó la gestión de Chávez. Con las mayores reservas petroleras del mundo, Venezuela padece una sequía de divisas para importaciones, de las cuales depende el consumo nacional ante una deficiente producción local, generando la escasez.

Los economistas achacan los problemas a la política económica estatista iniciada por Chávez –y reforzada por Maduro–, con control cambiario desde 2003 y un abultado déficit fiscal, debido a un intenso gasto durante tres campañas electorales (dos presidenciales y una de autoridades regionales) entre octubre de 2012 y abril de 2013.

En sus discursos con fuertes ataques contra la oposición –que le han impedido establecer un diálogo con dirigentes opositores como Capriles–, Maduro culpa a una “guerra económica de la burguesía parasitaria” de la escasez, el acaparamiento y contrabando de rubros básicos.

“Chávez actuó como un dique de contención, el modelo daba señales de problemas, pero él con su carisma, su verbo, servía de salvavidas. Al no estar pareciera que los problemas se evidencian con una mayor crudeza”, considera el politólogo Ángel Oropeza, de la Universidad Católica Andrés Bello.

Como nunca antes en 15 años de chavismo, los venezolanos hacen largas colas en los supermercados y, a veces, entran en caos cuando aparecen productos como harina, pan, aceite, azúcar o papel higiénico.

Ante las dificultades económicas, Maduro ordenó rebajas forzosas, decretó un máximo de 30% de ganancias para todos los sectores productivos –reforzando el control de precios iniciado por Chávez en 2003–, pero por otro lado se vio obligado a flexibilizar el mercado cambiario para facilitar divisas a importadores.

A diferencia de Chávez, Maduro puso el combate a la violencia criminal (que genera 65 muertes diarias según una ONG) como tema bandera en su gobierno, lanzando el movimiento por la paz y la vida, entre otros planes.

Sin embargo, la criminalidad fue el detonante de las protestas estudiantiles en San Cristóbal (occidente) el 4 de febrero, y que una semana después se ampliaron a ciudades como Caracas, Valencia, Maracay y Mérida, incluyendo reclamos por el deterioro económico.

El gobernador chavista de Táchira (cuya capital es San Cristóbal), José Vielma Mora, rechazó la represión en las marchas y la captura del dirigente opositor Leopoldo López, preso desde el 18 de febrero acusado de instigar a la violencia con su llamado a protestar pidiendo “la salida” de Maduro.

Pero el incidente no pasó a mayores. “Claramente a la luz del día las divisiones (que pueda haber dentro del oficialismo) no se ven porque el chavismo en eso es muy disciplinado y tratan de mostrarse unidos”, dice la historiadora Margarita López Maya.

En este año también se ha visto al mandatario cerrar filas con el jefe del Parlamento y ex militar, Diosdado Cabello, visto como líder del ala radical del chavismo y nexo con los militares.

En este año han sido los militares, además, quienes han ganado espacio en el aparato estatal bolivariano: ahora tienen un canal de televisión, un banco, y muchos oficiales adicionales en cargos públicos en especial en el área financiera. Pero además el presidente Maduro, cuya profesión antes de la política era conductor de autobuses –a diferencia del teniente coronel Chávez–, adoptó la terminología bélica para hablar de su gobierno revolucionario.

Así los miembros parecen haber dejado de lado las reuniones de gabinete para reunirse en “puestos de comando” para preparar las “batallas” y las “ofensivas” que lleven a la “victoria” en la “guerra” contra la burguesía, el imperio o los enemigos fascistas. Y los actos públicos ahora terminan con la consigna: “Chávez vive, la lucha sigue”.

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