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Europa y bienestar, ¿cuál es el modelo?

Giorgio Vittadini | 52 comentarios valoración: 3  99 votos
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Uno de los elementos que caracteriza de un modo exclusivo a la cultura europea, cuya conquista ha interesado a lo largo de toda su historia, es el bienestar universal: el derecho de todos, independientemente de la clase social, a acceder a servicios sanitarios, educativos y asistenciales de igual calidad. Para confirmar este carácter único basta con pensar no solo en los países emergentes sino en los Estados Unidos, con las dificultades que la reforma sanitaria de Obama está encontrando.

Formado a lo largo de los siglos, a partir de obras sociales surgidas de la libre iniciativa de los ciudadanos y asociaciones, el bienestar europeo ha ido implementando poco a poco su capacidad para responder a las necesidades de la población. Progresivamente, ha sido cada vez más importante, sobre todo en el siglo pasado, el papel del estado de bienestar que, fundado sobre un proyecto de justicia social, se sirvió de la progresividad de los impuestos y la capacidad del sector público para redistribuir la riqueza. Dicho de otro modo, Europa se dio a sí misma una sanidad que puede usar también de manera privada pero que es pública, una asistencia en caso de infortunio, una prevención social y la obligación de ofrecer una instrucción generalizada.

La generalización y la nacionalización de la protección social llegó gracias a una masiva intervención de los estados en términos de gasto público que, al menos hasta los años sesenta, se difundió de varias formas y de manera centralizada: no prevé una subsidiariedad horizontal, si no muy limitada y en ciertos sectores, ni una subsidiariedad vertical. El estado central es quien se ocupa de prestar los servicios de bienestar. Tras las primeras dificultades surgidas a finales de los setenta, el sistema de políticas sociales vinculado al modelo del estado de bienestar entró en crisis en todos los países por una serie de factores externos e internos.

Las consecuencias de esta crisis global en nuestro continente no solo afectan al empobrecimiento de las personas que ya estaban en situación de dificultad, sino también de las clases medias, que se encuentran de repente en una situación vulnerable y con la previsión de que sus condiciones van a empeorar, lo que les produce una sensación de incertidumbre que no ayuda a la reanudación de las dinámicas de crecimiento y desarrollo que, en cuanto tales, exigen confianza. Desde este punto de vista, el replanteamiento de los modelos de bienestar debe partir de una consideración diferente de los sujetos implicados en el proceso de prestación de los diversos servicios.

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