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21 OCTUBRE 2018

Braulio Foz y la Virgen del Pilar

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Se nos dirá que es un lugar común, pero es una afirmación probada por el transcurrir de los siglos: no puede entenderse Zaragoza sin el Pilar, y el Pilar sin Zaragoza. Dos mil años de historia los han hecho inseparables, y ni las transformaciones urbanas ni los cambios políticos y sociales alteran la realidad de una fe y devoción de hondas raíces. No hace falta ciencia de teólogos ni altos grados de santidad para entrar en la casa de la Madre y sentirse cercano y amparado por Ella. Todas las épocas, aun las en apariencia  indiferentes, son pilaristas y en todas ellas surgen momentos para “ir a ver a la Virgen”, como acostumbran a decir los zaragozanos. No faltarán, por supuesto, quienes arrinconen la devoción a Santa María del Pilar en el baúl de las tradiciones populares, por no decir del folclorismo. Pero esta actitud ni siquiera se dio en nuestro siglo XIX, en un contexto marcadamente anticlerical, en un tiempo en el que la burguesía mercantil zaragozana tenía puestas sus esperanzas políticas en Espartero y en los que más tarde fueron sus continuadores. Un esparterista reconocido fue el escritor y catedrático universitario Braulio Foz (1791-1865), con una formación académica en la que no faltaba el culto a la naturaleza inspirado por Rousseau y con la que era capaz de rebatir a Renan sus tesis sobre la historicidad de los evangelios.  Pero las filias y fobias del escritor nunca fueron incompatibles con el respeto, admiración y seguramente devoción a la patrona de Zaragoza, ciudad en la que llegó a ser decano de la facultad de letras. No pocos críticos reconocen en Foz al mayor prosista aragonés desde Gracián, sobre todo por su peculiar novela Vida de Pedro Saputo (1844), de carácter popular y didáctico, protagonizada por un “pícaro redimido por la sensatez”. Pedro Saputo recorre la geografía aragonesa, primero, y la española, después, en un itinerario en el que se mezclan lo costumbrista y lo psicológico. En las páginas de esta novela, a la vez desconocida e inclasificable, asoman Zaragoza y el Pilar en unas referencias memorables.

El capítulo V del libro III de la Vida de Pedro Saputo contiene un elogio de Zaragoza, escrito desde una emoción indescriptible, presente en estos fragmentos: “Vio, en fin, las torres de Zaragoza, acercóse más, divísólas con más claridad, alegrándose de un modo que jamás había experimentado; y dijo: persona, ciudad ilustre, madre mía, como de todos los que nacen debajo de este gran cielo de Aragón (…) Esa majestad tan bien sentada, esa grandeza que se levanta en la imaginación y en la memoria; tu nombre que es todo amor, todo sublimidad, todo gloria y heroísmo”.  Toda una muestra de cómo las torres de las iglesias han diseñado el auténtico perfil de Zaragoza a lo largo de los siglos: torres mudéjares como las de la Magdalena, San Pablo, San Gil o San Miguel de los Navarros, la elegante torre de la Seo con sus reminiscencias del barroco romano, o las airosas cuatro torres del Pilar, símbolo permanente de la fe de una urbe bimilenaria. Pedro Saputo acude a Zaragoza para ver a su madre, aunque cabe preguntarse que si además de a su madre terrena, Pedro está yendo a visitar a la madre  Zaragoza, y a la madre celestial venerada bajo la querida advocación del Pilar. Memoria e imaginación fluyen en este otro párrafo: “Y diciendo esto fue adelantado y llegó a los muros y quiso entrar y entró por la puerta de Santa Engracia. Penetró el Coso, y mirando que hubo esta hermosa calle, se metió por la de San Gil y atravesó la ciudad hasta el puente, desde el cual, visto el Ebro, miró hacia su lugar y le saltó el corazón pensando en su madre. Entróse por la ciudad y viendo a la izquierda una iglesia y la puerta abierta fue allá y se encontró con el suntuoso, magnífico y soberano templo de la Seo. Volveré, dijo, que esto pide más tiempo. Y preguntando por el Pilar y cayendo que estaba cerca, visitó a Nuestra Señora y se fue a una posada”.

Los especialistas sabrán profundizar mejor en el tema, pero es posible que Foz no dejara de pensar en su propia madre al referirse a la de Pedro Saputo al que, por cierto, califica de “hijo de mujer”en el título completo de su libro. Por lo demás,  el autor dio pruebas sobradas  de devoción filial al dejar su puesto de profesor en la universidad de Huesca en 1814 para residir en Cantavieja y cuidar de su anciana madre. Si la devoción y el recuerdo a la Virgen del Pilar lo inculcan de un modo especial las madres, no sería difícil ver en la madre del personaje literario un trasunto de la progenitora de Foz. A este respecto, resulta significativo este pasaje de la estancia de Pedro en Zaragoza: “Su madre, viéndole tratar con tan altas personas, daba continuas gracias a Dios y no sabía salir del Pilar, costando trabajo a las pobres niñas sacarla para hacerla seguir y ver la ciudad”(libro III, cap. XV).

Pedro Saputo es el protagonista de anécdotas y aventuras de tono satírico y burlesco que tienen por escenario, en su mayor parte, las tierras del Alto Aragón. Su ingenio le lleva incluso a la corte de Madrid, donde un rey alaba sus agudezas y escucha sus consejos. Sin embargo, le dará de inmediato permiso para marcharse al decirle Pedro que debe viajar a Zaragoza para cumplir un voto a la Virgen del Pilar. Estas son las palabras que el autor pone en boca del monarca: “No te prives de cumplir tu buena obra; y sabe que tengo envidia a los aragoneses que tan de cerca pueden visitar a aquella señora y madre de todos” (libro III, cap. XIV). Seguramente de esa envidia participó Braulio Foz, gastado por exilios y persecuciones políticas que le apartaron de Zaragoza, la ciudad donde su personaje, Pedro Saputo, habría querido vivir toda la vida. Hombre de contradicciones en lo político y en lo personal,  Foz no apagó la llama de la devoción transmitida por sus mayores.

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