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A mis pueblos

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Estos días en Viena tiene lugar una exposición que se ha titulado "A mis pueblos". En el cartel el retrato del emperador Francisco José con sus inconfundibles bigotes austro-húngaros invita a recorrer los principales hitos que marcaron la I Guerra Mundial. La muestra se ha instalado en la Sala Principal de la Biblioteca Imperial, una imponente y larga estancia decorada en el más puro estilo barroco en la que se disponen en las dos alturas de estantes de caoba más de 200.000 volúmenes que fueron editados en Europa entre 1500 y 1850. Los emperadores no solo querían fastos y música, también apostaban por la letra impresa.

La exposición recorre cronológicamente lo sucedido desde el asesinato del archiduque Francisco Fernando hasta el anuncio de la rendición por Carlos, el último emperador.

Se recogen los bandos originales de Francisco José que iba haciendo públicos a medida que avanzaba la contienda. Todos ellos están encabezados con el saludo: "A mis pueblos". A cada uno de los textos le acompañan documentos de alistamiento, prensa de la época, caricaturas, material didáctico y un sinfín de elementos que permiten revivir aquellos años. La mayoría del material es propaganda utilizada para mantener alta la moral de la población.

En mitad de la sala, una pantalla proyecta una serie de fotos. Las primeras imágenes reflejan el entusiasmo que suscitó primero la guerra contra Serbia y luego la extensión del conflicto. Esa sociedad imperial que quedó sepultada tras 1919, con sus ceremonias y pomposidad, creía en agosto del 14 que se había anunciado una fiesta. Los oficiales se hacían retratar con sus uniformes como si hubieran sido convocados a un baile, los jóvenes se echaban a las calles y en sus rostros se adivina la generosa alegría de quien se entrega a una noble causa, acompañado de la camaradería de la milicia.

El enjuto emperador se retrata de buen humor. No parece entender la desgracia a la que le empuja el militarismo germano. Ni tampoco el error cometido en 1915 al entrar en guerra con Italia. A partir de ese momento no habrá retorno posible.

Poco a poco las imágenes van cambiando. Aparecen los rostros curtidos de los soldados, casi niños. Las primeras trincheras que pronto se convierten en laberintos de la muerte desde las que las caras de los combatientes reflejan un cansancio inexpresivo, sin sonrisa y sin brillo en los ojos. Es fácil adivinar en ellas el dolor por los compañeros perdidos, los horrores contemplados, el hambre, el miedo y el frío. Luego aparecen los cuerpos mutilados, abandonados en el campo de batalla, los cadáveres congelados, el barro, las máquinas de destrucción. Los perfiles se ocultan tras máscaras antigás que con sus dos ojos de vidrio parecen calaveras. Y casi al final, el retrato de un adolescente uniformado destaca por mirar directamente a la cámara. Su silencio parece ser una gran pregunta que resuena como un grito dirigido a cada uno de los volúmenes de la biblioteca, a los autores de las más grandes obras del pensamiento europeo moderno. ¿Cómo ha sido posible esto?

La guerra, como refleja la exposición, había reducido casi toda la riqueza cultural a propaganda. Hasta el poder más blando de entre los que se ejercieron en aquellos días, el del imperio austro-húngaro, enseñaba en las escuelas a odiar a los enemigos, a jugar con bombas, a justificar la barbarie. Todo el saber europeo fue incapaz de frenar a un poder que utilizaba una compleja maquinaria para que las más elementales exigencias de justicia y de verdad quedasen sometidas. La lección que en estos días se imparte en la Biblioteca Imperial de Viena es evidente: no hay herencia, no hay pasado, por grande que sea, capaz de frenar al poder. Solo el presente, solo un hombre, quizás como lo fue el adolescente retratado, que juzga, que distingue lo verdadero de lo falaz, lo humano de lo inhumano, puede servir de contrapunto.

El buen emperador Francisco José también fue devorado por ese poder y llevó a sus pueblos a la ruina. Cada misiva, "a sus pueblos", ahondaba la tragedia. Cuando su hijo Carlos quiso firmar la paz ya era demasiado tarde. Francia había decidido que era la hora de destruir el imperio, la hora de entonar el réquiem por un imperio difunto.

El cuerpo de Francisco José reposa a pocos metros de la Biblioteca Imperial, en la Cripta de los Capuchinos. Un féretro sin adornos recoge sus últimos restos. Merece una oración por su eterno descanso. Y los pueblos, la gente, merecen libertad y la libertad frente a un poder que se ha vuelto más sofisticado que el de hace cien años, solo viene del presente, de distinguir lo que nos hace más humanos.

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