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Ha tenido que venir la robótica

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“Inteligencia social”. El título lo dice casi todo. La sexta Conferencia Internacional de Robótica Social que se ha celebrado hace unas semanas en Sidney ha explorado las capacidades relacionales de la inteligencia artificial. No estamos hablando de ciencia ficción.

Hay numerosos proyectos que trabajan en el desarrollo de “máquinas inteligentes” capaces, por ejemplo, de ayudar en la cocina o de servir de guías urbanas. La robótica social empieza a desbordar las fronteras que la ciencia moderna había levantado entre muchas disciplinas y está poniendo de relieve que no se puede entender la razón como una simple herramienta de lógica abstracta. La robótica social derriba los mitos del racionalismo.

No es extraño que en los foros de especialistas de esta disciplina se reúnan expertos en anatomía, en psicología, en antropología, en arte dramático, o en literatura para indagar en aquellas facultades que permiten esa sencilla habilidad humana que consiste en relacionarse con la realidad sin reducirla a una serie de datos fríamente procesables.

Hasta hace no mucho las humanidades eran definidas como lo “no científico”. La tecnociencia de los últimos años ya no permite hacer esa afirmación. La robótica busca disciplinas hasta ahora recluidas en la reserva de lo irrelevante porque se pregunta si es posible pasar más allá de lo que Turign planteó en su famoso artículo "Computing Machinery and Intelligence”. En el 50 del pasado siglo A.M. Turing explicó que un juez no podría ser engañado por una inteligencia artificial sobre la identidad de su sexo. Para simular una inteligencia masculina o una inteligencia femenina hay que tener experiencia de la identidad y de la diversidad sexual. Si la inteligencia fuera solo una capacidad lógica–abstracta sería mucho más fácil. Pero da la casualidad, como dice Carme Torras –investigadora del del Institut de Robòtica i Informàtica industrial–, que la “inteligencia no es un añadido que podemos separar de nuestra existencia humana o de nuestro cuerpo físico”.

No sabemos hasta dónde llegará la nueva robótica. Lo que sabemos es que el intento de replicar la razón humana está forzando a entenderla de un modo nuevo. “La robótica tiene un largo camino por hacer, los retos tecnológicos son formidables pero no es menor la tarea de comprender lo humano”, aseguraba hace poco Willard McCarty del Kings College of London.

Paradojas de lo postmoderno. Nos ha bastado la necesidad de replicarnos, aunque sea en una escala pequeña, para que saltaran las esclusas de aquel pensamiento que nos identificó con ideas claras y sencillas. Si siguiéramos hasta el final el camino que indica Willard McCarty nos llevaríamos dos sorpresas más.

Primera. La inteligencia relacional no puede ser tampoco explicada exhaustivamente por la psicología. Dentro de la psique y más allá de la psique, como forma de la relación con las cosas, no fuera de ellas, aparece el problema del sentido. Solo esa mutilación monstruosa que ha hecho de nosotros algo peor que autómatas puede hacernos creer que el gris del asfalto, una tarde de plenitud, una frustración, los rostros del vagón del metro o el compañero fugaz del ascensor son datos procesables en un lenguaje binario. Sobre esta gran cuestión el monólogo final del replicante Batty en Blade Runner siempre será canónico: “He visto cosas que vosotros no creeríais. He visto los archipiélagos siderales y las islas donde los cielos delirantes están abiertos al viajero. He visto rayos C brillar en la oscuridad cerca de la puerta de Tannhäuser. Todos esos momentos se perderán en el tiempo como lágrimas en la lluvia”. No hay inteligencia que renuncie a lo eterno. Lo eterno ahora, como profundidad, altura y anchura del dato.

Segunda. Junto al sentido la otra columna de Hércules de la navegación postmoderna es la libertad. El racionalismo la había empobrecido. Bastaban las ideas claras para moldear las conductas. La decisión había perdido su misterio. También en esto quedamos reducidos a un mecanismo. Como si nuestro destino se jugara ante un cruce de carreteras bien señalizado. Quizás la robótica nos enseñe también que para entender a poder leer los carteles no solo basta la fría lógica sino una libertad encendida. O que la verdadera claridad muchas veces no se adquiere con el destello de las formulaciones sino en una larga travesía que permite recuperarlas después de mucha carne y de mucha vida. Seguramente no habrá replicantes que nos lo expliquen. Para aprenderlo tendremos que escuchar a los de nuestra raza.

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