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Corrupción: más allá del maniqueísmo

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Los españoles viven con las manos en la cabeza. Sorprendidos y preocupados por la corrupción. Es una de las conclusiones más contundentes del Barómetro del CIS (el sondeo oficial sobre el estado de opinión más fiable) de finales de noviembre. La alarma ante la situación se ha disparado y el 63,8 por ciento de los ciudadanos cree que el fraude es el principal problema del país. El paro es señalado por el 77 por ciento de los encuestados. Es un record histórico. Y explica, en parte, el auge de los populismos. La cosa puede ir a más.

Sin duda hay algo en el sistema que no funciona. Los partidos políticos, como las cajas de ahorros, se separaron de la vida social y en ese contexto ha sido fácil que germinara el robo y el uso inadecuado del dinero público. Por eso aparece con fuerza la tentación de maniqueísmo: la culpa es de los otros. Víctor Pérez Díaz publicaba hace unos días en el diario El Mundo un artículo para salir al paso de esa simplificación que no conviene dejar pasar. El sociólogo, el gran experto en sociedad civil, apuntaba que “somos nosotros quienes hemos estado eligiendo a nuestros políticos desde hace 40 años. Y por ello somos responsables de lo que han hecho”. Menos quejarse y más reconocer que no podemos hacernos las víctimas ni convertirnos en vengadores iracundos. Hay que “evitar la locura de no aceptar nuestra parte de la responsabilidad por lo ocurrido”. Esa responsabilidad ha sido dar por buena la versión sectaria de unos partidos políticos que siempre le echaban la culpa al contrincante.

El maniqueísmo, hay que recordarlo, es una herejía cristiana que siempre ha tenido su atractivo. El mal, la corrupción en este caso, no es consecuencia de la libertad sino una parte inevitable de la realidad. Afirmar que todas las cosas son buenas, como dice el Génesis, tiene consecuencias políticas muy importantes: es necesaria la responsabilidad. Hay quien dirá que eso es remontarse mucho. Pero para comprender la ideología que alimenta a los actuales populismos conviene reconocer su raíz marxista: se justifica lo negativo como condición del avance histórico sin hacer las cuentas con la libertad.

El viejo maniqueísmo se extiende cuando los españoles tienen poco hábito de compromiso con lo público. España vota pero figura a la cola de los países europeos (junto a Portugal) en las estadísticas de participación política. Cuando se producen iniciativas de recogida de firmas, solo responde el 28,6% de la población. Por el contrario, el 87,4% de los suecos o el 79,4% de los británicos se involucran en este tipo de acciones. Lo mismo sucede con el voluntariado, con la dedicación a las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro o con la disposición a sostenerlas con el propio dinero. España está a la cola de los ratios. Sólo el 17% de la población dedica tiempo a acciones de voluntariado y el 46% afirma no sentirse en absoluto motivado para hacerlo.

Puede explicarse el fenómeno por razones históricas. La sociedad civil se empezó a desarrollar en España y en Portugal desde el final de las dos dictaduras, mientras que en el resto de Europa ha contado, al menos, con el doble de tiempo. Sin una sociedad civil articulada los partidos tienden a comerse todo el terreno. Junto a la historia, la educación es esencial. A varias generaciones se les ha explicado que lo público es solo lo estatal o que el mercado genera bien común porque hace magia con el egoísmo privado.

Todo o casi todo tiene sus causas. Pero no volvamos a caer en el determinismo que expulsa la falta de responsabilidad por la puerta y la deja entrar por la ventana. Ni el peso de la historia ni el de la educación nos impiden reconocer que somos en relación con los demás y que eso nos convierte en protagonistas de la vida democrática.

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